Category Archives: Innovation

African Peace Militaries War, Peace and Democratic Governance

9781138682290

About the Editor

David J. Francis is the most recent Head of Department of Peace Studies and is currently Director of the John and Elnora Ferguson Centre for African Studies (JEFCAS), at the University of Bradford, UK. He is author/editor of eight books, including US Strategy in Africa (ed. Routledge, 2010).

Description

This book provides a critical understanding of the emerging role of African militaries in peacetime democratic Africa.

This book departs from the dominant perspective which simply presents the military as an ‘enemy’ of democracy because of the history and legacy of unending military coup d’états and interventions in civilian politics. In the context of Africa, the military has been blamed or largely held responsible for instigating wars, armed conflicts, political violence, poverty and underdevelopment due to bad governance and mismanagement of the state. Drawing from diverse case studies across Africa, including Nigeria, Rwanda, Uganda, Ethiopia and Egypt, this volume presents the argument that though the military has played a negative, and sometimes, destructive role in undermining constitutional rule and the overthrow of democratic civilian governments, the same military, now operating in a changed global environment, is making effort to support the development of democracy and democratic consolidation as well as remain subjected to civilian democratic oversight and control. Notwithstanding, the real challenge for this emerging trend of African peace militaries is the extent to which they are able to fulfil, on a predictable and consistent basis, their constitutional mandate to defend the people against ‘elected autocrats’ in Africa who try to use the military to perpetuate themselves in power.

This work fills a critical gap in the literature and will be of much interest to students of African security and politics, peace and conflict studies, security studies and IR in general.

Table of Contents

1. African Militaries in War, Peace and Support for Democratic Development, David J. Francis

2. The Military in Nigeria: War, peace and support for democratic governance, Oshita Oshita

3. The Rwanda Defence Force: from Genocide to Peace and Democratic Consolidation, Marco Jowell

4. Military in Uganda: war, peace and support for democratic consolidation, Eric Awich Ochen

5. Military Response to Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria: Implications for Peace, Security and Democracy in the Lake Chad Basin, Kenneth C. Omeje

6. African Solutions to Western Problems: Western-sponsored Training Programmes for African Militaries: impact on Peace and Democratic Consolidation, David Chuter

7. African Standby Force: Challenges and Opportunities for support of Democracy in Africa, Kasaija Phillip Apuuli

8. African Militaries, Security Sector Reform and Peace Dividends: a case study of Ethiopia’s post-1998 Defence Reform Experience and impact on Democratic Development, Ann Fitz-Gerald, Paula MacPhee & Ian Westerman

9. Egypt: the Military in War, Peace and Democratic Development, Joseph Lansana Kormoh

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ANNUAL PEACE STUDIES & INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE: RESOURCES, CONFLICT AND DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA

The annual Peace Studies & International Development conference for Africanist doctoral students and early post-doctoral career scholars and practitioners is scheduled to take place on the 11th May 2017 at the University of Bradford in United Kingdom.

The conference theme is: Resources, Conflict and Development in Africa.

Conference cluster themes include:

1) Natural Resources and Conflict

2) Transition from Resource Conflict to Peace and Peacebuilding

3) Natural Resources, Demographic Change and Development

4) Conflict, Security, Peace and Development Nexus

5) Regional Integration, Security and Development

6) Africa and the Rest of the World

https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/resources-conflict-and-development-in-africa-tickets-33989318968

154306 BU FoSS 3rd Annual A4 Poster V2

Annual Peace Studies & International Development Conference: Resources, Conflict and Development in Africa

The annual Peace Studies & International Development conference for Africanist doctoral students and early post-doctoral career scholars and practitioners is scheduled to take place on the 11th May 2017 at the University of Bradford in United Kingdom.

The conference theme is: Resources, Conflict and Development in Africa.

Conference cluster themes include:

1) Natural Resources and Conflict

2) Transition from Resource Conflict to Peace and Peacebuilding

3) Natural Resources, Demographic Change and Development

4) Conflict, Security, Peace and Development Nexus

5) Regional Integration, Security and Development

6) Africa and the Rest of the World
The conference is open to doctoral students and early career scholars, researchers and practitioners. Potential participants and paper presenters are required to submit an Abstract of 200 – 300 words on or before 15th November 2016 to:              africanistpgrc2017-group@uni.bradford.ac.uk
All shortlisted participants will be required to submit the first draft of their papers at least two months before the conference. The conference is expected to result in a co-edited book (Lead Editor: Professor Kenneth Omeje, Senior Research Fellow, John & Elnora Ferguson Centre of African Studies, University of Bradford). Kindly note that all short-listed participants will be responsible for the full-cost of their participation, including visa, travels, accommodation and subsistence.

For full details on the conference: conference-call-oct-2016-revised-version-1

University of Bradford – Mount Kenya University Capacity – Building Partnership

Professor David Francis visited the Mount Kenya University in Nairobi, and the University main campus in Thika between 27- 28 June, 2016, where he held meetings with the University Vice Chancellor Professor Stanley Wando and other Senior administrators on the prospect for capacity –building partnership with the University of Bradford.

mku_mous2.png

The envisioned partnership will support the development of curricula in context-relevant areas of Peace and Security studies starting with the Master of Science in Peace and Social Enterprise, an international conference on Peace and Security in Africa, as well as an International Journal of Peace and Social Enterprise.

MKU offers a variety of programmes in peace and security studies through its Institute of Security Studies, Justice and Ethics. University of Bradford’s Department of Peace Studies, which Professor Francis heads, celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2014. The two institutions have agreed to work together on Staff capacity training/mentorship and exchange programmes. “Lack of information on available opportunities has been a hindrance to African academics,” said Professor Waudo. “But this relationship opens a treasure trove of information. Our staff, for instance, will now have information on Commonwealth scholarships available.” Professor David is a Commissioner for the UK Commonwealth Scholarship Commission.

 

The Cost of Skeleton Cities: Thomas Goodfellow on Urban Development and Taxation in Rwanda and Ethiopia

[Image Credit: DFID ‘laying Foundations for the Future (2013)]

‘What worries me is when you see developments that can transform a city so fast and become very hard to come back from, we are talking about serious, physical concrete changes and real massive vested interests, it becomes very hard to change that (and) to introduce new taxes (…) new housing schemes, because the land is being used in all these ways.’

Land is a finite resource. Whilst this is perhaps more apparent in Kigali, than Addis Ababa, these cities’ government led urban development drives demonstrate a preciousness about land distribution and the political purposes of such use. This is the comparative vantage point that Dr. Thomas Goodfellow is taking in his new work on urban development and taxation in Ethiopia and Rwanda. During a recent JEFCAS seminar, Goodfellow underscores the permanence of change created by urban developments that actualize ‘physical concrete changes and real massive vested interests’. This radical change is set against the urban citizens of these countries, who in a best case scenario may find new employment opportunities if they are able to compete in a job market situated around business tourism or high end financial products, but in a worst case scenario find themselves (re)displaced into the countryside or shrinking slums with no benefit from these often massively state funded projects.

Goodfellow joins a chorus of economists that herald the increasing relevance of property tax. The stated potential for property tax is not just as a tax on property, but a tax on increasing wealth in both Addis and Kigali’s real estate growth. The average property tax in most developing countries falls at around 3%, offering varying degrees of significance in state and local revenues. Rwanda has an official property of 2-4%, which in real terms (due to loopholes and antiquated valuation systems) works out at about 0.009%.  A libertarian’s paradise indeed! The situation in Ethiopia is even less appealing where taxes as fairly piecemeal, with effectively no property tax. The reasoning for this deficit varies according to the political economy of each country: Rwanda’s ‘elite bargain’ avoids discussion of property tax in order to reproduce a careful balance of political power for the ruling Rwandan Patriotic Front between businesses and its economic success story; the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front mixes their need for urban political support (making redevelopment of housing a priority), Chinese development intervention/partnership, and the restriction of diaspora investment into real estate. Both polities produce specific interest driven development of their major cities.

Goodfellow’s preliminary analysis therefore lends further cases to the claims made by Thomas Piketty’s Capital in the Twenty-First Century. This work highlights the rise of rentier wealth, and the protection of assets in property that remain untaxed, which can translate over time into patrimonial wealth. Most obviously connecting these perspectives is the framing of property tax as a tax on wealth and as a necessary tool for combating emerging forms of and increasing inequality. Goodfellow’s comparative analysis casts doubt on achieving this measure, as the speculative tenancy rates rather than benefits to the urban poor drive the current development logic in these countries.

Certainly, any observer can take  varying degrees of cynicism away from this comparative study, however, considering in addition the comparative absence of political freedoms in both Rwanda and Ethiopia, it is unsurprising that China finds common bedfellows with these partners in construction (and oppression). Aside from this speculative connection, China certainly is exporting its own model of development into these parts and other parts of the global south.

China’s infamous Three Gores Dam project highlights the challenges of massive scale development that displaces residents. With over a million people were forced to relocate, new residences were built, but the problems of permits and affordability led to the continued displacement of hundreds of thousands. Similarly, in Addis, new housing projects continue to rise, but are ill affordable for the lottery winning residents. Most end up paying for the housing by remaining in the slums and renting out the apartments. In Chinese cities, where slums are cleared for the construction of high-rise apartments as housing for the growing consumer middle-class, the poor are made homeless with the rhythmic shove of a bulldozer’s front end. William Vollmann in his global south reflection Poor People, is covered with an image he captured of one such individual.

vollmann_poor_people

[Image credit: Magnesia News (2015)]

This man works his way through the rubble after the clearing of homes for a new road in Nanning. This is perhaps the enduring counter-reality of the high-rises in Kigali, Addis, and various other Chinese cities.

The featured image for this post, conversely portrays the more apparent reality. This construction worker, captured by the UK government’s Department for International Development, stands proudly in the foreground of the make-shift scaffolding and concrete foundations. The fate of such workers and the urban poor who dwell amidst this property driven development, remains, as Goodfellow states, uncertain at best. Fast-paced, ‘concrete changes’ in the name of preserving political hegemony and serving elites, can be tamed by property tax and other progressive measures; yet, what reason do such governments have to adjust their own interests and challenge beneficial status quos?

References:

Thomas Pikkety, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (2014)

Mark Levene, ‘Dissenting Voice , Part II,’ Journal of Genocide Research 6, no. 3 (2004)

William Vollmann, Poor People (2008)

[Link to the podcast of Dr. Goodfellow’s seminar]

Further reading:

From Poverty to Power, ‘Why premature deindustrialization is really bad news for development’ (2015)

Dr. Goodfellow’s professional page